September 2010 Cover Page

September 1907
  
The Rifleman's Journal
A Collection of Articles Dealing with Rifle Accuracy Topics


The New Springfield at Camp Perry

This Month:

Geoffrey Kolbe - Making the Rifled Barrel
Hap Rocketto - Hap's Corner
Ken Meise - Caldwell, NJ - 1919
Rollin Smith - The Sportsmen's Exposition of 1897
Germán Salazar - Reloading

15 Cents 

Reloading: Measuring Bullets

A couple of recent letters, including this one from Richard prompted me to give some thought to bullet measuring.  I hope this article covers the topic effectively enough to make you do some thinking as well.  - GAS -


Measuring Bullets
by Germán A. Salazar

Germán:

I recently received a box of 80 gr. VLD Berger bullets and took measurements of four bullets.

From base to tip 3 measured 1.0985" and 1 measured 1.015".

From base to ogive they measured .4970", .4975", .4985" & .4990". This variance is what you previously said I could expect.

Next I used the Stoney Point LNL (with the metal rail not the plastic they furnish now). I figured I made a mistake with the results I got, so I did each one over three times but all four bullets measured the same from the base to the ogive at 1.848". I then checked from the base to the bullet tip and all four measured the same: 2.438".

STRANGE

So, if I seat 10 thousands (0.010") into the lands, I should be safe - I hope - as I never seem to get the same seating depth no matter what I try. I probably will first try seating at the lands.

I must be doing something wrong with the seating die. I've thought of going to the Wilson seater with the arbor press but I'm not sure if this will correct whatever I'm doing wrong.

It's really frustrating when one bullet is 1.848" depth, the next is 1.846" and the next is 1.847".

I also measured four 90 gr. Berger VLD's and have to do it over as the measurements are all over the place. Time to stop as I'm getting tired. Continuing is a bad idea.

Have not had the chance to fire a box of Remington to break in the barrel and then do a check with a fired round using the Sinclair Seating Depth Gauge.

Richard


Richard,

Your experience and questions bring up several points worthy of discussion.  I'll break them down into a few basic questions and give you my thoughts on them.

1.  What am I trying to accomplish?
2.  Will measuring bullets help me to reach my goal?
3.  If I choose to measure them, what should I be measuring?
4.  What are the problems and sources of error in measuring bullets?

1.  What am I trying to accomplish?
As always, I begin from the premise that we're strictly speaking about Highpower shooting, not any other discipline.  With that in mind, I believe that what were trying to accomplish is to load ammunition with a high (but not necessarily extreme) level of accuracy, in moderate volume, to be fired under a variety of conditions on a target with relatively generous scoring rings (our 2 moa 10 ring).  Accordingly, I tend to select high quality components (like Berger bullets) and do very little checking.  Over the years, I've found that this approach lets me use my limited reloading time to best effect, but it certainly isn't the only approach to high accuracy. 

The ultimate goal of any reloading process should be to create uniform and accurate ammunition.  Any measuring process is more geared towards uniformity than accuracy which is best handled through component selection, powder charge and other similar factors.  Uniformity of bullets, however, should lead to uniform seating depth which is certainly an element of an accurate load and a worthwhile goal.  So uniformity of seating depth is our objective.

2.  Will measuring bullets help me to reach my goal?
Maybe...  If the bullets you've selected have a significant degree of length variance (we'll discuss the critical dimension further down) then perhaps sorting would help.  However, I tend to think that if a bullet has significant length variance, that perhaps the quality of manufacturing isn't really up to my needs and I'd be better off with a different make of bullet.  For the record, I use Sierra, Lapua, Berger and Clinch River bullets with no reservations.

If the bullets has only a small amount of length variance, then I don't believe that measuring and sorting them will materially aid accuracy in a Highpower match.  Depending on the bullet, I will seat them in the case so that they are jumping to the rifling, or (more frequently) so they are jammed into the rifling.  In either circumstance, the amount of jump or jam is never less than 0.010" and usually 0.020"; that's enough to account for small variances in length.  The worst possible seating depth is right on the lands; at that point, any small variance will have some bullets jumping, some jammed and a few right on the lands; this will result in significant elevation dispersion.  By jumping or jamming a reasonable amount as described above, you ensure that all of your bullets are doing the same thing.  Small differences in the amount of jump or jam are far less significant that jumping some and jamming others!

3.  If I choose to measure them, what should I be measuring?
I know my process is not universal and some people will want to measure their bullets - maybe just because they can, maybe because it gives them confidence or maybe because their curiosity is insatiable.  That's fine, let's see what might be useful to measure in order to achieve our goal of uniform seating depth and well examine the principal problem that stands in your way.

First let's consider where the bullet contacts the rifling and how the seating die contacts the bullet.  The bullet, of course, contacts the rifling along the length of its full-diameter shank, beginning at the end of the ogive, where the curvature of the tangent or secant ogive shape flattens out.  There are plenty of tools that will indicate this location pretty closely, I use the Sinclair hex nut comparator for this task.  Although the inside diameter of the .30 hole isn't quite .308" (if it were, the bullet would slide through) it is close enough and in any event it provides a consistent point of reference. 

In this picture you see a bullet inserted into the Sinclair hex nut comparator and I've made a red mark on the bullet so that we can see just where the full diameter shank begins.  As I hope the picture shows clearly, the shank begins at the top of the red mark where it is against the hex nut.  The top of that red line is our first critical point, let's call it the shank line.




Next let's slide a case and the bullet into the seating die.  Here we're using an old Vickerman seating die because its cutaway front exposes the seating stem which contacts the bullet and is really the focus of our attention.  As you'll see, the stem contacts the bullet well above the shank line - that is precisely the source of most problems in bullet measuring.  If the stem contacts the tip of the bullet, the situation will be especially bad because the tips on hollow-point match bullets are somewhat irregular.  However, most match-grade dies have a deep enough cavity in the seating stem to avoid that further problem.

What are the problems and sources of error in measuring bullets?

Next let's make a blue mark on the bullet right where it contacts the seating stem.  let's call this point the stem line.  Obviously, making these marks with a marker leaves a bit of a smudge, but since I'm doing this just to illustrate a few concepts, it's of no great consequence.

Now here's the bullet with both marks.  I have the calipers open to show the distance between the shank line and the stem line, but there is no way to precisely measure this distance and no matter how precisely you scribe those lines, the actual measurement will be imprecise enough to make it a futile effort.  Unfortunately, this is the single most critical distance in a bullet as it will determine the uniformity of jump or jam to the rifling on the loaded cartridge.  It is the variance in this distance that we should be trying to measure, but I don't know of any way to do that with a useful degree of precision.  That's why I don't measure bullets.

Here's a frequently taken measurement: base to ogive line.  I don't see any value to this measurement because we really don't deal with the base as an element of seating the bullet and this distance is really not relevant to our goal of uniform jump or jam.  Imagine measuring a set of bullets made in two bullet-making dies which happened to make this dimension identically but had a 0.030" difference in the shank line to stem line dimension described above.  Did you measure the right thing?  Would it help reach the goal?  No.

Here's another frequently taken measurement.  Other than being easy to measure, I can't see that there is any reason at all for checking the overall length of a box of bullets.  The tips, and therefore the overall length, vary enough to give anyone heartburn.  But the tip is irrelevant to the seating process and thus its irregularity can be ignored.  Notice that the two lines in which we're most interested aren't being used at all in this measurement.  This measurement is a complete waste of time.

The case base to shank line measurement is ultimately what we're truly interested in.  This is the measure of jump or jam.  When you take this measurement and find variance, it is exclusively the result of variance in the unmeasurable shank line to stem line dimension.  If you were really dedicated (or simply nuts) you could seat all of your bullets about 0.010" longer than your desired dimension, measure each one and reseat it with an individualized setting on the die.  My eyes are glazing over just thinking about that process.  The simpler approach is to seat them to a reasonable level of jump or jam.  If some of my bullets are jammed 0.012" and some are 0.017" and a bunch are somewhere in between, I won't worry about it one tiny bit - they will all shoot to X ring elevation and that's my goal.

 

Related Article:

Basics: The Leade Angle

Basics: The Leade Angle
by Germán A. Salazar

The letter below from our friend Lance poses a question that many shooters have: "Just what is the leade angle?"  We'll cover the basics of the question as well as some additional information to help understand this rarely seen and inadequately discussed element of a rifle's performance.  - GAS -

German,

There is one technical term, I often read in the discussion of rifle chamber dimensions. I have an idea of what it is but am not real solid on its function and its importance to performance. The term I am referring to is: leade angle which I always see expressed in degrees and minutes of angle. Here's a quote from your article on reloading for the 6XC:

"I ordered a reamer from PTG with a 1°30" leade angle and a 0.271" neck diameter (see Figure 2). The standard Henriksen reamer is made with a 0°45" leade angle and a 0.276" neck diameter. While the shallower leade angle seems to be gaining some popularity in various Highpower oriented reamers, I have yet to see a cogent explanation of why it might be better."

I have been reloading for about 10 years now but have never heard (sought out) an explanation of leade angle. I guess I could always Google it but you have always provided cogent answers.

Sincerely,

Lance



Hi Lance,

You always have good questions!

First let's nail down some terms: as you've noted the leade angle is expressed in degrees and minutes. Second, let's bear in mind that the leade angle is a "per side" measure, which may become more apparent in a moment.  Finally, despite frequent misspellings, it is properly called the leade with an "e" at the end (you got it right, others sometimes don't).

Simply stated, the leade angle is the angle cut by the reamer on the very end of the lands. This allows the bullet to begin its engraving into the lands on a relatively gentle angle rather than against an abrupt 90 degree "wall".

The pictures below, taken at high magnification through a borescope show the leade angle cut into the lands of a barrel by the reamer.  These pictures are from an earlier article by Mario Favaron on throating reamers, a whole different topic, but they illustrate the leade angle quite nicely.



The first picture (above) shows the end of the leade angle as the land transitions to full height.  On most cut-rifled barrels, by the way, the lands are about 0.004" high, less on a button-rifled barrel.


The second picture shows the beginning of the leade angle, a little further back in the chamber, closer to the neck.  At the far left of the picture you see a sharp transition, marked by the first vertical white line - that's where the case neck ends.  Then there is an area where all the rifling has been cut away by the reamer, that's the leade.  Then the throat begins, that is the part where the leade angle cut into the rifling gives the bullet has a smooth transition into the rifling so that the engraving force is applied over a period of time, not abruptly, which would cause a severe pressure spike.

Let's have a look at a reamer print to get some harder numbers on the subject.  By some strange coincidence, I happen to have a .30-06 chamber print handy, so we'll use that.  As always, you enlarge any of these images by clicking on them.



As you look at the chamber print, let's identify a few elements.  As you look at the neck, you'll see a box labeled "45" just below and indicating an angle at the end of the neck.  That is the aptly named "mean little shoulder" which marks the end of the neck and is what your brass will run into if you don't keep it trimmed.  It makes a very effective (if unwanted) crimp and pressure will really skyrocket if the brass gets in there.

Next in line is the leade which you can see is 0.086" long; there is no rifling left here after the reamer has made its cut.  Also notice that the diameter here is 0.3085", this is another element of accuracy; a large leade diameter does nothing good for accuracy, but too tight can cause pressure problems as well as difficult chambering.

Now look at the dimension box furthest to the right on the print, it says 1 - 30, shorthand for 1 degree, 30 minutes, or 1.5 degrees.  That is the leade angle and the throat is the length from where the leade angle begins to where it ends and the lands assume full height.  The print can be a little confusing to look at, since it almost appears that the leade angle extends past the point marked as the end of the throat, but in reality, it doesn't (see the first picture above).



This last picture needs careful attention.  It shows a case with a cast of the inside of the barrel stuck into the case mouth.  Because you're looking at bore cast, the lands and grooves look opposite of what they really are.  The lands look like grooves and vice-versa.  Understanding that, look at the lands as marked and you'll see that they taper into full depth - that taper is the leade angle.  Now just reverse things in your mind and you'll have a perfect image.

Over the years there has been a trend towards shallower leade angles. The .30-06 was often cut with a 3 degree leade angle but the 1.5 degree seems to shoot more accurately and is more commonly encountered today.  Looking at my SAAMI manual, it calls for a leade angle of 1 degree 22 minutes for the .30-06.  I don't know if that's a change in the modern era or if it's always been specified that way, but I tend to think it's a change.  There are leade angles for different cartridges from 6 degrees per side (25-35 Win.) to plenty in the 1.5 degree area.  As a general rule, cartridges standardized by Remington tend to have 3 degree leade angles and those standardized by Winchester tend to have 1.5 degree leade angles (although there are exceptions to both).

My .308 chambers are cut with a reamer with a 0.5 degree leade angle.  I can't say for sure that they shoot any better than the old chamber that had a 1.5 degree leade angle.  When I specified the 6XC reamer you mentioned above, I hadn't yet tried this shallower angle .308 reamer so I stuck to the "standard" 1.5 degree leade angle for the 6XC. 

The real question in my mind is, how close are these dimensions after a few hundred or a few thousand rounds have been fired and some erosion is taking place?  I can see in the borescope that the leade angle is still there, but I certainly can't tell if it's at the original angle and I also don't know if the shallower angles wear more quickly than the 1.5 degree angle.

The ultimate effect of the leade angle on accuracy and barrel accuracy life is beyond my ability to test and quantify.  I probably won't change the .308 reamer because the rifles are shooting well, but I also don't think I'm in any hurry to change the other reamers to an angle shallower than 1.5 degrees - nor steeper.  For reasons of simplicity, standardization and drawing on the useful collective experience of the shooting community, I'll stick to 1.5 degrees as my Goldilocks "just right" leade angle.

Hap's Corner: Law Is a Bottomless Pit

Judging from my e-mail queue, I know that I'm far from the only lawyer who enjoys Highpower shooting and a good yarn.  Our old friend Hap, as you will read below, was very nearly one of our small number; but he instead chose to follow the honorable path of the educator.  Here Hap recounts the weekend that left him more closely aligned with John Scopes than with Clarence Darrow - more's the pity that our profession missed out on a man of his keen intellect, wit and passion for history.

Law is a Bottomless Pit...
By Hap Rocketto

I shot my first long-range match in 1972 at the Colonie Club outside of Albany, New York. I was working in a small private school in New Jersey and was going to meet my fellow shooters from the Magnum Rifle Club at the range. I didn't have a long-range rifle but my brother said he would get something together for us. That spring I was at a cross roads in my life and was thinking about going to law school. As it happened the match was the same weekend as the Law School Admission Test. So one pretty Saturday morning I took the exam and then hopped into my trusty Volkswagen Beetle for the trip up the Hudson River Valley to the match.

During the drive I enjoyed the scenery and let my mind wander to unwind from the test and prepare for the match. Suddenly a thought formed in my mind that taking the test was a waste of time. I realized that I was disqualified from entering the legal profession. As an undergraduate I had taken a course in ethics and passed it with a B. As a rule pre-law students are steered away from taking such a course. Students who take ethics, and pass it without resorting to cheating, are automatically barred, if you will pardon the pun, forever, from the practice of law.  (We'll allow Hap some literary license here...  - GAS -)

When I arrived at the range and found that my brother Steve had purchased a bull barreled Winchester Model 70 from the estate of the legendary late Butch Lagerstrom. The rifle had a four digit serial number and was chambered in .30-06. Steve had bore sighted both iron and telescopic sights and got a rough zero on a short range "Christmas Tree" sighting in target. We were as ready as we could be and he gave me the dubious honors of both paying for the rifle and shooting it first. The first match was any sights and I hunkered down behind the rifle, took up what I thought was a good tight position, and let rip. I had never fired a scoped high power rifle before.

I thought the muzzle blast was tremendous and the noise ear shattering for a '06. It turned out that it was no more violent than any other ‘06 I had ever fired. The apparently excessive flash and noise was the by product of the scope slamming back into my forehead. It drove my glasses back into my eye sockets and cut a neat quarter size half circle through my eyebrow. The impact made me see stars and dislodged my earmuffs giving the impression of a really big bang. Head wounds tend to bleed way out of proportion to the size of the injury and it took a minute or two to stanch the flow. As a rifle shooter I never thought that, like Marciano, Ali, or Balboa, I would appreciate having a good cut man in my corner. You can well imagine how tentative I was for the 20 shot string.

As I sat with a sack of ice over my eye during lunch I listened to the tales of the Colonie club members. The one that has stuck with me was concerned the motocross daredevil. The 1000-yard line at Colonie is set up on a wooded hillside. From it you can see the entire expanse of the vast greensward of the range. At hundred yard intervals, starting at 800 and going right to the pit berm, are well-manicured firing lines that are several feet above the level field. During a lunch break, such as the one we were enjoying, at some past long range tournament, the shooters were startled to see a helmeted leather clad motorcyclist emerge from the woods by the 800 yard line.

The modern day centaur swung a slow circle as he sized up the terrain and must have thought the god of bikers had smiled upon him. He drew back, gunned the engine, and proceeded to jump each one of the berms. Warning shouts from the firing line were not heeded. They most likely went unheard, probably muffled by the sound of the engine and the helmet. Mouths on the firing line went dry as the rider jumped the final berm and headed to the one that protected the pit.

The snarl of the bike's engine being wound up as it approached the final berm was the last thing heard as the machine soared into the air and then disappeared from sight into the pit. The shooters stood motionless in horror for a few seconds and then dashed to their cars and roared off down range to render what aid they might to the hapless biker. They arrived in time to witness a stunned biker, helmet askew, leather torn, and eyes glassy stagger relatively unscathed from the hole. The same could not be said for his mount which, bent and twisted, had been impaled on a target frame. After dusting off the biker, calling for a wrecker, and finishing lunch the match resumed.

I would have given a lot to be a fly on the wall and seen the biker's face when the world dropped out from underneath him and he realized he was heading straight down into a trench full of metal punji stakes. As I sat nursing my swollen face I reflected upon the similarity between the biker and me. I knew I was never going to be a lawyer but I did know a thing or two about the law of averages and the law of gravity and I was thankful we both had on our safety equipment.

Basics: A Few Reloading Hints and Tips Part 1

Basics: A Few Reloading Hints and Tips - Part 1
by Germán A. Salazar

There are a few little items which I find newer shooters ask about with some frequency and some which thy don't ask about but should!  Over time, as these items pop up, I'll work them into the site.  Here, in no particular order of importance are a few useful hints and tips for reloaders.  As always, you can click on the pictures to enlarge them.

Let's take a look at the basic powder throwing and weighing setup.  The first pictures shows the powder measure mounted on a shelf at eye level.  This is also a great place for a mechanical scale if you use one, as it keeps the beam in line with your eyes.  However, the important thing to note here is that the powder jar has notes on it.  Specifically, there are a lot of references for the setting on the measure that relates to a given weight of powder.  These aren't absolute, but they save a lot of time when starting a session as they let me get close on the first try and then I can fine tune.  The powder type (H4350 in this case) is also written on the label so that when I get nervous halfway through a session, I can reassure myself that I am using the correct powder.  The front of the jar has the factory label unobstructed but since the notes are on the backside, a little extra doesn't hurt.

You can see that the Sinclair and NECO concentricity and case gauges are nearby also, that's because I give them very frequent use so I don't want them hidden away in a drawer.

Let's move on to weighing the powder charge.  I use an older Ohaus Navigator scale; I switched to it about 7 or 8 years ago, mostly because I got tired of straining my eyes to see the scale pointer on the mechanical scale.  I don't think that any electronic scale is necessarily an improvement in terms of accuracy for Highpower shooting.  Electronic scales have a few deficiencies, one is that they drift a bit which we'll address in a moment, the other is that they lead to a false sense of extreme precision.  My scale reads to two decimal places as most do, but being a bit older, the second decimal place is only a 5 or a 0, the more modern ones read in increments of 0.02 gr.  The false sense of precision I mentioned is that second decimal place, really, it isn't going to make a bit of difference in your score and you can go mad trying to get it the same on each charge.  I ignore the second decimal place completely.  For instance, if I want 53.5 grains, I don't care if the scale reads 53.50 or 53.55, it's all the same to me.  However, if it reads 53.45, I will trickle up to the 53.50 or 53.55 weight.

Notice the little green label on the scale with the charge weight written on it.  I put one of these out for each load that I use (there's a stack of them in that little cardboard box on the right).  This is a good reminder of exactly what we're looking for in the charge.  It's easy to get distracted and get some numbers confused during a session so a constant visual reminder right in my line of sight is a great way to avoid problems later on.

Another item of note is the bullet sitting on the scale.  My pan weighs 142.1 grains, every time I lift it off, I expect to see a reading of -142.10 or -142.15.  If I see something different, then I recalibrate with the bullet, a Sierra 142 with just enough masking tape added to one side to make it weigh 142.1 gr.  Why don't I just recalibrate with the pan?  Because by the time I see the drift, I usually have already thrown a charge into the pan and I hate to put it back.  The bullet is a fast and easy method, I simply drop it on the plate, hit the zero button and I'm back in business without any real loss of time.

I try to throw a little light and trickle up, but obviously some charges will be heavy and need to be reduced.  The tweezers on the right corner are very handy for that.  Steal your wife's at your peril, better to make a run to the drugstore!

Another item of note is the leather bag on the left side to support my hand while trickling.  This is a #16 Brick Bag made by Protektor bags and it's a perfect rest for the wrist.

A plastic coffee can lid is the best primer tray I know of.  It's cheap, easy to find, easy to replace, let's you tap it to flip primers, etc. 












Something a little more involved and beyond the true "Basics" element of this article is bullet pointing.  However, there are a few quick tips here for those who do it.  My procedure for setup is:
  • run the stem up
  • then raise a bullet into the die
  • lower the stem to just contact the bullet
  • lower the ram slightly
  • screw the stem in 1/4 turn
  • raise the bullet back up into contact with the stem
  • tighten the lock nut on the stem while under bullet pressure
  • lower the ram, run the die head down 10 numbers
  • start pointing bullets
This is a quick way to set up the die and will give consistent results from one session to the next or one lot of bullets to the next.  I only point the number of bullets I'm loading that day and this method lets me return to a consistent amount of pointing easily.


Seating depth is one of those things that I'm fairly fussy about.  Principally, I want to make sure that I seat bullets to the seating depth that I've determined is best for the load and rifle in question.  Therefore, I check seating depth with the Hornady Stoney Point tool each time I reload a set of brass.  Frankly, it's a pain in the neck with the tubeguns because the little screw to lock the rod falls inside the tube, although it's accessible through the bolt slot.  I need to get a longer screw for that...

When using the seating depth tool, it's convenient to use a wood dowel to push the bullet back out as it tends to get stuck in the rifling.  However, there is a very real danger of forgetting to remove the wood dowel.  Make a safety flag on the end of the dowel from duct tape, it'll save you from a real serious problem one day.



Checking the seating depth is best done with a comparator of some type.  There are a few makes types of these on the market, I use the Sinclair hex nut tool which reads right on the ogive.  It's pretty simple to use and even I can't break it, although I lost one...

So there you have it, nothing earth shattering, but hopefully a few ideas to make your reloading simpler, more productive and more enjoyable.

History: Advertising in 1896 to 1901

History: Advertising in 1896 to 1901
by: Germán A. Salazar

Here's a look at some advertising from the 1896 - 1901 time frame from some period magazines.  I always enjoy the old ads and I hope you enjoy them also.


















History: The Sportsmen's Exposition of 1897

The SHOT Show is today's grand gathering of the outdoor trade; a siren calling to sportsmen the world over, with the joyous sound of the bolt closing on a new action, the mechanical clatter of the latest whiz-bang reloading marvel, or perhaps simply a new duck call.  In days gone by, there were similar gatherings; here we present an account of one such event from the pages of The Sportsman's Magazine. Anyone for a time machine? 
- GAS -



The Sportsmen’s Exposition of 1897
By Rollin E. Smith

COULD any sportsman from a distance, some evening during the week ending March 20th, have been translated to a curtained box in Madison Square Garden, New York, he might easily have imagined himself in some unknown wonderland. As the notes of a Canada goose, lord of the game-bird kingdom, sounded clear and distinct, our sportsman would intuitively have looked toward the heavens, or have peeped out of his blind to see if the birds were coming his way ; while the muffled boom of the heavily-charged revolvers in the gallery below would make him feel confident that someone more fortunate was keeping his gun-barrels hot in the enjoyment of sport.

Suddenly from away off in the distance, comes a weird and mournful sound, a moan increasing in volume 10 half a roar. The hidden sportsman listens intently, for it is the call of a moose from the woods of Maine. And as the hunter cautiously draws the imaginary bush aside, there, less than fifty yards away and high above the ground, stands the mighty moose in all the glory of as proud a head of antlers as sportsman ever envied. Beside the great animal, in hunting garb is the motionless figure of a weather-beaten guide from the forests of the North, while from the long birch-bark funnel held to his lips comes the mournful sound of the moose call.

The spell is broken and the sportsman gazes down upon a multitude of stylishly-dressed men and women thronging up and down the long aisles, the brilliant costumes flashing among the great cases of shining guns. The whole scene is made as light as day by innumerable electric lights, while the senses are delighted by strains of waltz or operatic music, which come floating down from the band in the gallery above. It is the third annual Sportsmen's Exposition, and it is no wonder that he was deceived into imagining himself in the woods, for he could have heard and seen all these things with scores of others equally dear to the heart of the sportsman.


A GENERAL VIEW OF THE EXPOSITION

Had Metropolitan "Society," in its arrogance, chosen simple manly sports as its toy, instead of horses, the Horse Show might never have reached its present degree of popularity, while the Sportsmen's Exposition would never have been as it is — beloved by sportsmen for the good it does them. It seemed a much more edifying spectacle to see a well-dressed, intellectual-looking man enthusiastically explaining to his wife or sister the mysteries of repeating rifles or hammerless guns, or the beauties of smokeless powder — yes, a hundred times more edifying than to crowd around in the mob of curious humanity below the boxes, and gaze with wonder into the faces of Dame Fortune's favorites. One is the Sportsmen's Exposition ; the other is the Horse Show.

What is the object of the Exposition? And how are sportsmen benefited by it? Just attend the Exposition next year, if you did not do so this, and you will find your answer in the Exposition itself. The guides from Maine and Wyoming return to their forest and mountain homes equally filled with new ideas and knowledge that they spread about by word of mouth for the year that must elapse before the next Exposition. Sportsmen from distant towns and cities are brought into close and friendly relationship with manufacturers and dealers in the tools of their sports. Ideas are interchanged; the manufacturer learns what the consumer wants, and the sportsman finds out the latest improvements in manufactured articles. The city sportsmen meet many country sportsmen, and are surprised to find them just as broad-minded — nay, ofttimes even more so than dwellers in regions of elevated railroads. The contact benefits both.



THE WINCHESTER REPEATING ARMS COMPANY'S BOOTH
To the out-of-town sportsmen, the journey to the Exposition is like the pilgrimage of the Moslems to Mecca. They come from all directions and from thousands of miles; their faces ever turned in one direction. At the completion of their journey, they handle lovingly the beautiful hammerless or the artistic repeater, or balance fondly the six-shooter, while the graceful split-bamboo is whipped about by practiced hands amid pleasant imaginations.

The lover of gun and rod is a strange animal, and notwithstanding that he is fond of companionship and that there are a million or more of such men in this country, they are bound together no more than are the autumn leaves when the autumn winds begin to blow. It is true that common interests bind them with a rope of sand, but they acknowledge no head, no body, no dictation. However it is hoped that the Sportsmen's Association and its annual Exposition will be the means of making many crooked things straight for sportsmen, and of eventually banding them into a brotherhood stronger than any other organization known to man. Such a fraternal order among sportsmen has long been needed.



THE HAZARD POWDER COMPANY'S DISPLAY

There is something in primitive nature strangely fascinating to the great majority of people. Even those who never visit the streams and forests of the wilderness show a wonderful interest in them when they can have the waters and the woods, with all their treasures, brought almost to their homes. This was shown by the visitors at the exhibit of the state of Maine. A neat little cabin built of peeled logs and chinked with moss, was surrounded with mounted game-heads and monstrous trout. The "camp " was made more complete by a tent at one side with a roll of blankets thrown carelessly on a bed of hemlock boughs, while a few feet away was a large lean-to built of balsam boughs. A dozen guides about the camp gave it a natural air that nothing else could have added. This corner of the Garden never lacked for visitors and most of the time it was crowded. Sportsmen who had been to the Maine woods, and many who hoped to go ; others who never had been and never expected to go; women and children who had never seen a log cabin before, and some men as well, all crowded and pushed to see and be near this corner of Nature's wilderness.

Turning to either side, one was confronted with a magnificent collection of mounted game. It seemed quite fitting to find them so near the forest scenes, and visitors thought so, too. The display of William W. Hart and Company, the New York taxidermists attracted much attention. There were shown a bull moose, several large bears, an African lion and several mountain lions, besides heads of most of the North American big-game animals. The most notable exhibit was the head of an Alaskan moose, which is said to be the second largest ever killed. The natural pose given to the heads and animals by the taxidermist, was fully appreciated by sportsmen.

The display of taxidermy by Fred Sauter, also of New York, showed the hand of an artist and a sportsman in the preparation of the specimens. The English setter mounted with one forefoot raised in the act of pointing, was a feature of the exhibit, and one that was appreciated by all gunners. The dog was very lifelike and lacked only the twitching, dilating nostrils to assure the sportsman that his intent expression was due to a bevy of quail rather than the clever work of the taxidermist.

The display of boats was large and very attractive, ranging from a ducking boat to a twenty-five-foot steam launch. Improvements in designs and appliances of sportsmen's boats have kept pace with the general progress in things recreative.

The New York Yacht, Launch and Engine Company, showed a twenty-one-foot, mahogany-finished launch with a two-horse-power Wing gas engine, a sixteen-foot yacht tender and several gas engines. The gas for the Wing engine is made as used, and ignited by an electric spark, thereby avoiding any danger of explosion. The specialty of this company is very light-weight engines and their Foster reversible screw which will stop a boat under full headway in about one length. This company builds all sizes and many grades of launches.

The Gas Engine and Power Company, of Morris Heights, New York, displayed a twenty-five-foot launch of fine finish, and an eighteen-foot steam-yacht tender. The company builds everything in the way of boats from a small row-boat to the largest launch. Among their specialties and improvements are marine watertube boilers and Seabury triple-expansion yacht-engine.

The Pennsylvania Iron Works Company, of Philadelphia and New York, exhibiteda beautiful mahogany-finished, eighteen-foot yacht tender and several of their marine engines with latest improvements. The engines are now made so as to bring the weight nearer the bottom of the boat, and are as nearly noiseless as possible. The height of a ten-horsepower engine is now only three and one-half feet and the crank-shaft is of the double-cylinder type, so balanced that it permits the use of a very small fly-wheel. The unpleasant sound of exhaust steam is done away with, and the exit is so arranged that there is no disagreeable odor. The company had a six-horse-power engine in operation, and one of fifty-horse-power in their display — the latter designed for a launch seventy feet in length.

In the Daimler Motor Company's exhibit was seen a Daimler launch with a motor of seven-horse-power and cabin accommodation for four persons. There were also models of launches of many other sizes. The Daimler launches have received many awards at expositions in this country and in Europe, given in recognition of safety, ease of handling and practical construction. A reversible gear has been perfected by this company that is now a feature of all their latest models.

Differing from the naphtha motors is the Alco-Vapor engine shown by the Marine Vapor Engine Company, of Jersey City, N. J. In the Vapor system, alcohol is used instead of naphtha or gasoline, and advantages of both safety and less bulk of fuel are claimed for it. This company also makes a full line of launches and yacht tenders, and claim for the former a lighter weight than any other launch of the same horsepower; greater speed per poundweight of engine than others; and weight of motive power so small that the launch will not sink even though filled with water to the combing.

A high-grade gas engine at a moderate cost is what the Manhattan Manufacturing Company, of New York, was calling attention to, and their claim is founded on years of experience in building them. Some of the features of their engines are light weight, low centre of gravity (the importance of which is readily recognized by all yachtsmen), and the comparatively small amount of fuel used.



W.H. MULLINS' DISPLAY OF BOATS

In boats and boating, nothing struck the average sportsman as more practicable than the portable motor, shown by the American Motor Company. The motor, rudder and screw, all in one, is intended for boats up to eighteen feet in length. It is clamped to the stern like a vise, and as it weighs only seventy pounds, the gasoline tank placed in the bow helps to balance the boat.

The portable electric propeller, displayed by Frank S. Allen, of New York, is designed specially for sportsmen's boats and small pleasure craft. The propeller and rudder, all in one, weigh only thirty-five pounds, but the four batteries weigh twenty-five pounds each. The many uses for such a propeller will readily be seen by everyone who goes down to the sea in boats.

Fishermen and duck hunters are liberally provided for by W. H. Mullins, of Salem, Ohio, who had a variety of boats in his exhibit, from his now well-known ducking boat to his latest model of dingey. All of them were made from metal — aluminum, galvanized steel or maganese bronze. Mullins' pleasure boats were beauties, and the ducking boats are necessities. One of the latter was shown with a screen of "grass boat-blinds" arranged around the cockpit, and such a combination, with the gunner hidden within, would be a deadly one on any water where wild fowl are found.

From boyhood, the present generation of shooters have known the Parker shotgun, and the name represents a high standard of excellence. In the display of Parker Brothers, there were no " show " guns, but all grades were well represented from a medium-priced hammerless gun to a high-grade pigeon gun with Whitworth fluid-steel barrels, and artistic, though not showy engraving. If there is any specialty indulged in by this very conservative firm, it is in beautifully-balanced small-bore guns — twenty and sixteen gauge, and some of these adorned the rack and cases, and delighted everyone who handled them.



EXHIBIT OF THE UNION METALLIC CARTRIDGE COMPANY

The Union Metallic Cartridge Company's brand of " U. M. C." has come to mean "You May Count" on the excellence of whatever that brand covers. Making a specialty of everything they produce, they had nothing but specialties to display. However, riflemen have found in the U. M. C. 22-calibre cartridges the superlative of accuracy, and the winner of the hundred-shot rifle competition at the Exposition used cartridges bearing this brand. Among the handlers of the smooth-bore, pigeon shooters are equally partial to the "Trap" shot shell.

The line of small arms shown by the J. Stevens Arms and Tool Company was as complete as it was attractive, and the attendants were continually kept busy in showing and explaining the mechanism of their arms. One of the latest specialty of the Stevens Company is an offhand target rifle of the Schuetzen model, with full Swiss butt-plate, palm-rest, hook trigger guard and double set trigger. The standard weight of this model is about twelve pounds. Among the other exhibits, there was a full line of pocket rifles, short and light, but almost as accurate as any regular rifle. These little weapons have been especially popular since bicycling became the fashion. Wheelmen fully appreciate the Stevens pocket rifles and long-barreled pistols. The arms of this company have always been noted for their extreme accuracy, and the hundred-shot championship rifle match at the Exposition was won by a rifleman using a Stevens 22-calibre rifle.



WHERE STEVENS RIFLES AND BAKER GUNS WERE SHOWN

The Baker Gun and Forging Company, of Batavia, N. Y., had a surprise awaiting sportsmen. The "pigeon gun " is the latest and best output of this progressive company, and it is made in the usual dimensions of a twelve-gauge trap gun. The surprise came in the quality for the price, for the gun sells at $80, though it looks like a gun worth twice the price. The barrels are of fluid-steel, dark-blue, almost black in finish; the action, on opening the barrels is soft and smooth; the stock is of beautiful Circassian walnut. A feature of the Baker gun that no other American and few foreign makes possess, is a block safety for the hammers. The triggers are blocked in all hammerless guns, but in this the hammers cannot fall and touch the firing-pins until the triggers are pulled. It is an absolute guard against premature discharge.

The remarkable penetration of the small-bore high-pressure rifle never ceases to excite people's wonder, as was shown by the curious throngs around the booth of the Savage Repeating Arms Company. Long blocks of wood were displayed into which bullets had been fired, and these were cut through over the tracks of the bullets, showing the wonderful penetration of these modern rifles. While the Savage rifle is made only in thirty calibre there are six different loads that can be used in the same shells, thus adapting one rifle to all purposes in hunting, from the smallest game to the grizzly bear. These rifles are made in several models for sportsmen, and in military and carbine style. They are light, symmetrical in appearance and well balanced.

Remington hammerless shotguns have not been so long before sportsmen as have many other kinds, but the name of "Remington" carried confidence with it when these guns appeared. This confidence has increased with each improvement, until now the friends of the Remington hammerless automatic-ejecting gun are confident that it is the best gun that can be made for the price. The Remington Company has a fondness for military rifles, and several models are made for the small-bore smokeless-powder cartridges.

The Colt's Patent Fire Arms Manufacturing Company has always possessed a striking partiality for revolvers, and this tendency was apparent in the display of that company. Two long cases were filled with the weapons that have made the name of Colt famous the world over. Although not new, the Bisley model target revolver is one of the latest productions of the Colt armory, and is now really being pushed for the first time. But later than the Bisley is the ladies' target revolver. This is of thirty-two calibre, standard length of barrel six inches, double action with a ''pull" that delights the heart, target sights and stock that fills the hand. The model is similar to that adopted by the New York police department, though lighter.

WHERE THE COLT FIREARMS WERE SHOWN.

One of the busiest spots during the Exposition was at the booth of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company, where, during every evening of the week, several attendants were kept busy showing rifles and explaining the wonders of the new small-bores. A year never goes by without something new from the Winchester armory, and the twelve months just past have yielded many things that sportsmen will find are just what has been needed. The tendency has been toward rifles of lighter weight for hunting purposes, and the Winchester 1886 model .45-70 was shown with shotgun stock and half magazine, weighing only six and three-quarters pounds; while beautiful little thirty-calibres, of 1894 model, were there that weighed seven pounds. A Lee Navy .236 as made for the government by this company and the thirty-calibre Winchester Army Model 1895, box magazine, were features of the exhibit; while the display of fancy rifles, ranging in prices from $35 to $400, was dazzling.

To the hunter and lover of fine rifles the stand of the Marlin Firearms Company was one of the most attractive at the Exposition. The display was not as large as some others, but in it there was for the rifleman sufficient food for thought for many months to come. This is an age of specialties, and that of the Marlin Company lies in making fine rifles with original designs of engraving and decoration. The case of rifles contained some that were truly works of art, with designs that could not be surpassed by the pencil of an artist. Rifle after rifle was shown with workmanship that is rarely excelled in any line, and certainly never on guns. For practical use there were take-down models in different calibres with oil-finished shotgun stocks and half magazines, and they balanced in the hands like high-grade shotguns. The Marlin Company has adapted its rifles to smokeless powder, high-velocity cartridges besides all of the standard black powder cartridges.

VON LENGERKE AND DETMOLD EXHIBIT

The name of Von Lengerke and Detmold has become almost synonymous with those of the Francotte guns and Schultze powder. To know one is to know the other two; and all three were very much in evidence during the week, while the American E.C. Powder kept them company. The agency of this nitro has again passed into the hands of this firm. Among the Francotte guns displayed were some that are owned by celebrated trap-shots and used by their owners in winning great pigeon matches. The other guns displayed were taken from stock and were in no sense show guns; but their good qualities were apparent to every one who handled them. With the guns and ammunition, a full line of high-grade fishing tackle and split-bamboo rods was shown.

Schoverling, Daly and Gales had a very complete line of Daly guns, in quality from medium to a magnificent piece of worksmanship at $500. Next to the Daly hammerless gun, this firm is known for the Daly three-barreled gun, and some very fine ones were shown at the Exposition. One in particular was especially pleasing to handle. It was sixteen-gauge with a rifle barrel adapted to the .32-20 cartridge, and the gun weighed about seven and one-half pounds. A full line of split-bamboo rods attracted the eye of anglers, the specialty of the assortment being the four-and-one-half ounce “Never Sink” fly rod.

In connection with this exhibit was that of the Horton Manufacturing Company, makers of the Bristol steel rods. A fine assortment of these rods was shown and in it were some specialties. The "Rangeley" fly-rod was a little steel beauty with cork handle, and weighed just six ounces. Another specialty was a light bait-casting rod. It seemed surprising that these slender pieces of hollow steel could hold a mighty fish; yet on a ten-ounce Henshall bait-rod, a tarpon weighing one hundred and thirty-five pounds was killed.

One of the greatest bargains offered to anglers during the week was at the booth of the H. H. Kiffe Company. A six-ounce split-bamboo fly-rod for one dollar was something unusual, surely; but there it was, even if one did have to ask a second time to be sure that no mistake had been made in the price. Besides a full line of fishing-tackle, a fine display of athletic goods was made by this company.

Something new in revolvers was being shown by the Iver Johnson Athletic and Cycle Works. Their revolver differs radically from all others in the construction of the firing pin, and they are so made that it is absolutely impossible to fire them in any other manner than by pulling the trigger.

Guns and revolvers would soon be useless without proper attention. For this purpose G. W. Cole and Company was supplying every one who passed their booth with a sample bottle of "Three in One." Over 10,000 bottles were thus distributed during the week, and all seemed to appreciate the value of the souvenir, for this excellent compound is as useful for oiling and cleaning bicycles or even sewing machines as it is for guns.

After looking over the booths where fine guns and fishing tackle were displayed, trap-shooters strolled over to the Cleveland Target Company's exhibit to see the Magutrap, the revolving wonder that will throw more Blue Rocks than half a dozen ordinary traps, and break fewer.


LAFLIN AND RAND POWDER COMPANY'S MINIATURE POWDER PLANT AND BOOTH.

Probably nothing that sportsmen use is harder to display in an attractive manner than powder, and yet the Laflin and Rand Powder Company succeeded in interesting not only sportsmen, but crowds of people who would shriek at the sound of a fire-cracker. A complete powdermill plant in operation was what did it, but it was in miniature form and enclosed in a glass case. A full line of smokeless high-velocity powders are made by this company, and a large number of sample cans of " W. A." — their shotgun powder — were given away. One of the particular features of this is that it is not affected by dampness, heat or cold.

Two immense wheels in monotonous revolution, grinding and rumbling, reminded one of the mills of the gods ; for those of the Hazard Powder Company were not only slow, but they ground " exceeding small."

No brand of powder is so well known to riflemen as " Hazard's Kentucky Rifle," but the attendants in charge were letting that rest on its merits while they sung the praises of " Blue Ribbon Smokeless" for shotguns.

E. I. Du Pont de Nemours & Company had in a small case an interesting collection of samples showing the stages through which the materials pass in the manufacture of powder. Also the process of making guncotton was shown, and some innocent-looking bars resembling soap were marked "guncotton." Doubtless a few of these little bars would be of great service in blowing offending men-of-war out of the water, should the necessity ever arise. The Du Pont mills have probably done more toward perfecting a nitro powder for rifles than any other American company, and the results obtained have been quite satisfactory.

A waterproof tent is the great desideratum, and Derby, Abercrombie and Company, of New York, had one set up so that its good qualities might be seen. It was not only waterproof, but was made of very light-weight canvas, weighing only twelve pounds, though it was seven-and-a-quarter feet square.

The New Zealand Mosquito Tent shown by T.W. Hickson of New York, is one of the most thoroughly useful and at certain seasons indispensable adjuncts to camping that has ever been offered to sportsmen.


A little music in camp has a wonderfully soothing effect on tired sportsmen, but the woods are not a good place for musical instruments as a rule. However, the Hutchins Manufacturing Company, of Springfield, Mass., showed sweet-toned mandolins made of aluminum that are unaffected by moisture.

THE CASE OF HUTCHINS' MANDOLINS

A.G. Spalding & Brothers had on exhibition a very complete line of golf supplies of their own manufacture, and players in golf costume showed the articles used on play on an artificial putting “green.” A new beveled-edge putter was a feature of the exhibit, and much interest was taken in its use by hundreds of people who never saw a game of golf, as well as by those to whom it was familiar. The Spalding bicycle and Christy saddle were also being shown to the numerous cyclists present.


THE OVERMAN WHEEL COMPANY’S DISPLAY OF VICTOR ATHLETIC GOODS

A very attractive display of Victor athletic goods was made by the Overman Wheel Company of Chicopee Falls, Mass. The Overman booth was arranged and watched over by C.B. Whitney and Waldo E. Nason. There was almost everything used by the athlete and all of the finest quality. The Victor base-ball and tennis-ball were shown in their various stages of construction, and suitable clothes for all branches of sport were to be seen.

History: 1919 National Matches at Caldwell New Jersey

We have previously covered some aspects of the 1919 National Matches which were held at Caldwell, New Jersey on a new range built by the Navy (see Hap Rocketto's article here).  Little is known about that range as it was heavily flooded and abandoned shortly after the matches.  However, Ken Meise, a long-time friend and competitive shooter in New Jersey has made it his mission to learn more about the range and the 1919 National Matches.  Ken has even visited the site and located many identifiable elements of the range.  Recently, Ken discovered this item describing conditions at the range during the 1919 National Matches in a book titled "The Minute Men of '17".  The book is a history of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps of the New York Guard written a few years after the Great War and published in 1922.  With great thanks to Ken Meise, we now present this unique insight into the range that hosted our National Matches in 1919.  - GAS -

History: The 1919 National Matches at Caldwell, New Jersey
by: Alexander Ramsey Thompson, United States Army, New York Coast Artillery Corps

To give an idea of the work at Caldwell and of the interest it held for those present we give an account of the work at the range by one of our officers, told in his own words.

"On July 7, 1919 I was ordered by Colonel Burleigh to proceed to Caldwell, New Jersey, and report to the commanding officer of the U. S. Navy Rifle Range as Property and Supply officer of the Ninth Coast Artillery Corps, New York Guard. A few days after arriving there, the commanding officer advised Colonel Burleigh that he was in need of additional officers to assist in the work of organizing the N. R. A. Matches, and requested the use of my services as information officer and as Acting Adjutant to Major Paul A. Capron, U. S. M. C, of his staff at such times as my regular duty did not demand my attention. Colonel Burleigh was glad to permit me to do this and I was soon detailed to this duty. I was appointed officer of the day shortly after this, and for the rest of the time that I was there so acted on every sixth day in rotation with five other officers of the Army, Navy and Marine Corps.

About the middle of July, there was a serious flood at the post, and for the time being I had no duties to perform in connection with my own unit, and therefore was able to give my entire time to assist Colonel Harllee and his officers in restoring conditions at the camp. It was a long, tedious piece of work, as the water was very slow in receding and we were only able to get things into fair shape by the time that the first of the matches were shot early in August. Nevertheless, the season was a successful one and I would be the last to find fault with conditions which could not have been in any way avoided.

From the time the matches began until after Labor Day our work was endless, as there were about 5,000 in the camp, of whom about 3,000 were civilians, and the difficulties and perplexities that were brought to our attention by the latter were numerous. The duties of the staff officers in that post were varied and continuous under the conditions described, as we were endeavoring to keep a lot of civilians, who had probably never been obliged to live under such unpleasant conditions, in an agreeable frame of mind, and endeavoring to get them to remain through the matches, and at the same time make them as nearly comfortable as possible. I have never seen such fine spirit displayed by any body of men as by those officers at Caldwell. Lieutenant-Colonel Harllee was tireless in his endeavors not only to hold the matches, but to hold them under as nearly normal conditions as possible. The flood and other unexpected contingencies which arose almost at the last minute were enough to stagger any commanding officer, but Colonel Harllee's attitude of serenity when face to face with almost superhuman difficulties made every one of his officers anxious and willing to spare nothing to lend him every endeavor and assistance at all times. That the matches were held and that they were successful was due entirely to his able leadership and determination to permit no obstacle to stand in his way. Taken as a whole, it was the most interesting experience of my brief military career, and I could ask no greater pleasure than to again have an opportunity of serving under Colonel Harllee at some future time.



The post was situated on very low ground, virtually a low-lying swamp in the valley adjoining the Passaic River northwest of Caldwell, N. J., and at the height of the matches, contained forty to fifty frame barracks and other camp buildings, and possibly 1,000 tents. One difficulty was the question of mess, as separate messes had to be provided for numerous units. When I first went to the post, there were not so many officers but that one mess was sufficient for all. By August 1, however, so many more officers came that it was necessary to divide the mess, and Colonel Harllee opened a staff mess in what was termed the clubhouse, to which he invited a number of officers regularly, and nightly invited many others as guests, not to mention the rifle teams which came as units, until all had been invited at least once. These affairs were generally held in the evening, and were accompanied by music and entertainment, followed, as a rule, by speeches or interesting talks by some officer or other person. There was no lack of music, as through the Matches there were several bands present, and they aided very much in keeping up the spirits of the men who were doing pretty uncomfortable work and leading a very uncomfortable life. For days at a time, I saw assembly for both Marines and Sailors held in three feet of water, this to make clear the difficult conditions under which everything was done over there for a period of ten days. For the men, there were separate messes for the Marine Corps, the Navy and those of the enlisted force of the Army present, of whom there were a considerable number; also numerous messes for the civilian rifle clubs.

I have been asked to describe the routine of the arrival of a civilian rifle team. As a rule they came from great distances, many from far Western and Southern States, and they always seemed to time their arrival at Caldwell after the last transport truck had been parked and the chauffeur sent to bed, so that the officer of the day had his work cut out for him for many hours following midnight. Team Captains would call up from Caldwell at absurd hours of the morning and state they had arrived at the end of the trolley line with their men, and request prompt transportation to the camp. However, I think we invariably succeeded in satisfying them that the delay was no fault of ours. I know that no rifle team or body of men ever landed in the camp without at once receiving hot food and being almost immediately made comfortable in barracks so far as it was possible to be in any camp.

I want to pay a tribute to the work of the welfare organizations of that camp, the V. M. C .A., the K. of C. and the Salvation Army. The work they did was beyond all praise. During and after the flood there were entertainments nightly in one or the other of their buildings, and it went a long way to keeping men who worked hours and hours every day in deep water, or later on in sticky mud, in a good humor. The services rendered by the ladies of the Red Cross of Caldwell, headed by Mrs. Edwin E. Bond, were equally important and worthy of attention. They accomplished wonders in every way in maintaining the morale of the camp.

As regards the arrangements for mess for outsiders at the camp, I would say that civilian teams or individuals coming to the camp paid for their own mess, although mess rooms and the mess itself were furnished and prepared by the regular camp organization. During the summer, I was frequently called upon to inspect the camp messes, and in so doing invariably found them to be of good quality, well cooked and properly served. Anyone who found fault with the food that he received at Caldwell did so without reason. Great criticism has been made of the camp and the conditions in it, during and following the period of the high water, but I want to say in that connection that as Officer-of-the-Day on Colonel Harllee's staff I was in a position to know at all times as to cases in the camp hospital. Almost all of the cases that were there during the summer were accidents, and I did not know of a single case of a man permanently stationed at that post who was at any time sick because of the conditions in that camp. We did have numerous cases of illness lasting for a few days at a time, but almost invariably they were outsiders, civilians who came from comfortable homes and indoor work, who went to Caldwell and immediately went out on the Rifle Range, lay down on the damp ground without protecting themselves by wearing a woolen belt, and naturally became prey to slight intestinal disorders. The Red Cross furnished the post with a detail headed by Major Slicklen. He brought several nurses who assisted greatly in the care of the sick and injured in the hospital. Naturally there were many accidents as there always are at annual matches. The only wonder to me was that more men were not drowned, so far as I know only one having lost his life in that way.

Front row left to right: Col. Smith, 13th C.A.C., N.Y.G.; Commo. Josephthal N.M.S., N.Y.; Maj.-Gen. Burnett, U.S.M.C.; Adj.-Gen Berry, N.Y.G.; Col. Burleigh, 9th C.A.C., N.Y.G.


There were about 250 targets, 100 on the 1,000 yard range, 100 on the mid-range, and 50 on the 200 yard range. Liberal opportunity was furnished to all outsiders to shoot at all times, except when matches were on. That this opportunity was not availed of generally was due to the conditions above described. Nevertheless, when it was possible to shoot, there were almost always some enthusiasts there at work. Ammunition and Springfield rifles were furnished free of all charge, and all a man had to spend was his carfare and the price of his mess, of which he had a choice of three, the officers', and two classes of enlisted men's mess, one where his mess kit was washed for him after its use, and the other at a lower rate where he washed it himself.

New York Day was one of the pick days of the season. Colonel George W. Burleigh, my commanding officer at that time, and a selected committee gave a luncheon at the Waldorf-Astoria to Adjutant-General Berry and a large number of invited guests, mostly officers of the New York Guard. Following this luncheon, the party was driven in automobiles from the Waldorf-Astoria to the camp. On the way to the camp, the party stopped to see an exhibition at the aviation field about two m1les away from the camp. This aviation unit was to have been stationed in a field directly across the street from the camp, but as this was turned into a temporary lake by the flood, it was never possible to carry out the original plan. However, daily after the arrival of the aviators, exhibitions were given over and about the camp. After the exhibition ended, the party continued to the camp and was conducted on a tour of inspection by the Commanding Officer and his Staff, after which a photograph was taken on the steps of the clubhouse. At about 7 o'clock in the evening a front line barrage was simulated under conditions as near as possible to actual warfare by the detachment from the Army School of the Line from Fort Benning, Georgia, under the command of Major Cheedle. The party later returned to New York as they had come.

The camp closed on the last Saturday in August, and by Labor Day there was no one left except the permanent camp force."

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